Row of several root celery plants growing

by John P. Thomas
Health Impact News

Celery does much more than add crunch to salads and stir-fries – it is a medicinal powerhouse! Its stalks/ribs, leaves, roots, and most importantly, the essential oil derived from the seeds are useful for many health concerns.

Parts of the celery plant have been used to reduce blood pressure, to alleviate muscle spasms, to remove excessive fluid from the body, to prevent or relieve intestinal gas, to expel intestinal worms, to ease constipation, to support male sexual activity, to help people relax and sleep, to stimulate the nervous system, and to be a tonic that gives strength and vigor. It is used for blood purification and as a cure for gallstones and kidney stones. It alleviates arthritic pain, treats rheumatic conditions, and can be used to treat gout. Celery extracts have been studied for the development of nutraceuticals – specifically their antioxidant properties, and their ability to regulate blood sugar and to prevent the aggregation of platelets in the blood. [1]

In recent years, my interest in the medicinal qualities of celery was piqued when my wife would buy amazingly beautiful heads of organic celery from a local farmer’s market. They looked nothing like the conventionally grown grocery store celery. The celery she purchased was at least 3 feet tall and contained all the leaves. The plant was bright green and radiating with life.

I could smell the essential oil of celery in the air when standing 3 or 4 feet away from the plant. The smell of recently harvested organic celery is a powerful delight. The fragrance enticed me to pinch off a leaf to smell and taste the essential oils it contains. It seemed to me that a plant smelling that good, tasting that fresh, and looking so alive, must have medicinal value. This article describes what I found when I did a study of celery.

Don’t Eat Conventionally Grown Celery

Before I discuss the medicinal details of celery, please accept this warning. Conventionally grown celery is one of the most heavily sprayed vegetables you can buy. Data from 2013 showed that the pesticide residue of celery routinely exceeds the established tolerance set by the USDA. Conventionally grown grocery store varieties of celery have been found to contain as many as 19 pesticides. [2]

I also want to mention that conventionally grown celery has been developed to have a very mild flavor and to contain high levels of water, which makes the plants prone to rot and mold. Even the typical organic celery that you might buy in sealed plastic bags may look and taste very much like the conventionally grown version. When you can buy a really fresh organic celery head with all its leaves and full flavor, you have found a real culinary prize for your kitchen.

Organic Celery Essential Oil

Even though the leaves and ribs of the celery plant contain essential oils and important minerals, it is the seeds that are the primary repository for essential oils. The celery plant takes two years to fully mature and produce its small fruit, which are tan to brown in color.

When you buy celery seed, you are actually purchasing the fruit of the celery plant. The fruit is rich in many fatty acids and is steam distilled to extract the volatile essential oils. The seeds can also be eaten raw or added to recipes.

(Never eat celery seeds packaged for conventional garden growing, because they likely contain toxic chemicals to preserve the seeds as well as other pesticide residue.)

I was quite surprised when I smelled the aroma of organic celery seed oil for the first time. It was much stronger than I expected. I also understood why it is included in many perfume formulas. It has a very complex aroma that changes over time once it has been applied to the skin. It is sweet and spicy, earthy and flowery, warm and fresh. It is an essential oil that clings quietly to the skin and is enjoyable to smell. It blends easily with other essential oils to create exciting natural fragrances. However, its health benefits are even greater than its pleasant aroma.

History of Celery


Wild Celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce) from Encyclopedia of Life. Source.

Celery originated as a wild plant growing in salt marshes around the Mediterranean Sea. About 450 B.C., the Greeks used it to make a type of wine called selinites. It served as an award at early athletic games, much as laurel leaves or olive branches. By the Middle Ages, Europeans were cultivating celery. Since that time, the plant has been used widely both as a food and as a medicine.

Late in the 19th century, various celery tonics and elixirs appeared commercially. These generally contained the juice of crushed celery seeds, often with a significant amount of alcohol. [3]

General Properties of Celery

I will start by describing the bigger picture regarding the health benefits of celery. Most of the following points were taken from a summary of scientific research about celery seed oil published in 2014 [4] Information from other sources will be noted by footnotes. The following sections will look more closely at the science behind the claims of therapeutic benefits for celery.

Celery contains compounds called coumarins that help prevent free radicals from damaging cells. This decreases the mutations that cause cells to become cancerous. Coumarins also enhance the activity of certain white blood cells (immune defenders) that target and eliminate potentially harmful cells, which include cancer cells. Coumarin compounds also lower blood pressure, tone the vascular system, and can treat migraine headaches.

Studies have also shown that celery may help prevent cancer by improving detoxification. In addition, compounds in celery called acetylenics have been shown to stop the growth of tumor cells.

Celery extract that contains 85% 3-n-butyl phthalide (3nB) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of arthritic and muscular aches and pains. N-Butyl phthalide is the compound in celery seed oil that provides the majority of the distinctive flavor. It can help resolve joint and connective tissue disorders.

Celery essential oil has been shown to have antifungal activity. It is also active against many bacteria including: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Pseudomonas solanacearum.

Phthalides and other compounds of celery seed oil have potential value for the treatment of hypertension and heart ailments. 3-n-butyl phthalide is also reported to be a muscle relaxant.

Phthalides have been reported to have sedative and anticonvulsant activity in mice. The oil has hypoglycemic activity. [5]

Celery juice can serve as a great electrolyte replacement drink. The high levels of potassium, sodium, and other minerals in celery makes it an ideal addition to homemade juices especially for consumption after an athletic workout. The minerals and vitamins and nutrients are well balanced for human consumption. Celery leaves are high in vitamin A, whilst the stems are an excellent source of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C and dense in potassium, folic acid, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus, sodium and essential amino acids. [6]

Now let’s take a look at the specific research.

Celery Reduces Blood Pressure

Celery has been studied for its ability to reduce blood pressure. It has been shown to have effectively lowered blood pressure in 14 of 16 hypertensive patients. [7] A component in celery, 3-n-butyl phthalide (3nB), lowers blood pressure by acting as both a diuretic and vasodilator. It removes excess water from the body and relaxes the muscles in the veins and arteries. In addition, 3nB appears to have some effect on areas and systems of the brain that control vascular resistance. [8]

Celery has a very unusual mechanism of action as a diuretic. Most diuretics change the ratio of sodium to potassium in the blood. This can cause dangerous situations in which there is either too much potassium or sodium. In contrast, 3nB acts as a diuretic but does not alter the ratio of sodium to potassium in the blood even though celery contains sodium and potassium. [9]

Celery Heals Gastritis and Reduces Stomach Pain

Celery is rich in apigenin, which has been researched and found to have very strong anti-inflammatory properties. A 2014 study revealed that celery extracts were able to inhibit gastritis, reducing symptoms of inflammation and pain. [10] Researchers infected gerbils with Helicobacter pylori to produce gastritis or exposed them to N’-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine to induce stomach cancer. After the diseases were established, the gerbils were given various daily doses of celery extract (apigenin). They found that 60 mg per kg of body weight of apigenin per day was able to significantly decrease Helicobacter pylori colonization and reduce neutrophil and monocyte infiltrations, thus reducing atrophic gastritis. [11]

Celery Prevents Damage to Male Reproductive Capacity

The presence of environmental toxins is reducing male sperm count, which is making conception difficult for many couples. [12] A 2014 study tested the effectiveness of celery for preventing harm to male rats when exposed to plasticizing chemicals. Researchers exposed male rats to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) to induce injury to the testes of rats. DEHP is a plasticizing chemical that is used in many common products made from PVC plastics. Some rats only received DEHP while others received DEHP along with celery seed oil. The rats were treated for 6 weeks.

The rats that were given DEHP and no celery seed oil experienced reduced body weight, reduced testes weight and reduced serum concentrations of testosterone, cholesterol and total proteins. Moreover, DEHP also caused the testes to atrophy, the vacuoles in cells to degenerate, and caused aspermia of the seminiferous tubules, which means the testes could not produce or ejaculate sperm cells. The study found that when celery seed oil was administered concurrently with DEHP to rats, most of the effects of DEHP were alleviated. Celery seed oil helped the rats maintain normal androgen production and prevented the testes from being harmed by DEHP induced toxicity. [13]

Celery Heals Liver Damage

The human liver is constantly performing hundreds of activities to buildup, breakdown and eliminate waste products from the body. When manufactured chemicals started being introduced into the food supply and environment, the liver also needed to cope with this extra burden. Sometimes the toxic substances are so harsh that they damage the liver’s ability to detox the body and actually threaten human life. This type of damage happens when we are exposed to plasticizing chemicals such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). In this 2014 study, rats were given DEHP to damage their livers, and then were given daily doses of celery seed oil extract for 6 weeks to evaluate the effects on rat liver disease.

After exposure to DEHP, the rats experienced increases in liver weights, serum cholesterol (Chol), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein Chol, liver total lipids, along with an increase in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, serum endothelin 1 and liver tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Additionally, DEHP administration to rats resulted in significant decrease in final body weights, serum total protein, albumin, liver total protein and serum total nitric oxide.

The researchers gave oral celery seed oil extract to the damaged rats at small cumulative doses (50 µl/kg of body weight for 6 weeks). They found that celery seed oil ameliorated the toxicological effects of DEHP, which was revealed in improved lipid profile, restored liver functions, improved vascular oxidative stress and inhibition of oxidative damage to lipids. [14]

Celery Seed Oil as Effective as Pharmaceuticals for Ulcers

This study investigated the ability of two celery extracts to reduce stomach lesions (ulcers) in rats, and to reduce bacterial activity in the stomach. They used liquid extracts from the aerial part of the plant (leaves and stems) and essential oil extracts from the celery seeds.

They found that when the extracts were given at doses of 300 mg per kg of body weight, there was a highly significant inhibition of gastric lesions (91% and 95%, respectively). This level of effectiveness was compared to the pharmaceutical drug omeprazole, which was 94% effective for the same condition. Omeprazole is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Their results also showed that celery seed oil strongly inhibited the activity of Escherichia coli and was moderately inhibitory against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. [15]

Celery Reduces Cancer

Phthalides are highly bioactive compounds extracted from celery. They provide protection against cancer and various other conditions. Sedanolide has been reported to be the most active of the phthalides, and has been shown to reduce tumors in laboratory animals.

Researchers used sedanolide and 3-n-butyl phthalide isolated from celery seed oil in experiments involving female mice with cancer. After treatment with 3-n-butyl phthalide and sedanolide, the tumor incidence was reduced from 68% to 30% (for the mice receiving 3-n-butyl phthalide), and was reduced to 11% (for the mice receiving sedanolide). There was also an approximate 67% and 83% reduction in tumor multiplicity with 3-n-butyl phthalide and sedanolide. This indicated that 3-n-butyl phthalide and sedanolide were both active in tumor inhibition. These results suggest that phthalides, as a class of bioactive natural products occurring in edible umbelliferae plants, may be effective chemo-preventative agents. [16]

Celery Reduces Inflammation and Pain of Arthritis

Arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation of the joints. This inflammation causes pain and can lead to severe physical disability. Clinical studies show that celery contains more than 20 anti-inflammatory agents. One compound is polycetylene that provides relief for inflammation involved in rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis and osteoarthritis. The phytonutrient, luteolin, prevents the activation of a neuro pathway that allows inflammation. In addition, it reduces the excess production of TNF-alpha, which is known as a direct cause of inflammation. [17]

A celery seed extract standardized to contain 85 percent 3-n-butyl phthalide (3nB) has been evaluated in the treatment of rheumatism, which is the general term used for arthritic and muscular aches and pain. During a 12-week study, 15 subjects suffering from either osteoarthritis, osteoporosis or gout received 34 mg of the specially formulated celery seed extract twice daily. Each subject had experienced pain for approximately 10 years prior to the experiment. Subjects were experiencing limited joint mobility and on-going pain, which prevented the carrying out of household duties, hobbies and other activities.

After 3 weeks of taking the celery seed extract, the average reduction in subjects’ pain scores was 68 percent. Some subjects experienced 100 percent relief from pain. Most subjects achieved maximum benefit after six weeks of use, although some did notice improvements the longer the extract was used. There were no harmful side effects.

In a larger study, 70 -patients received 75 mg of the celery seed extract twice daily for three weeks. The higher dosage yielded even greater improvements. The celery seed extract was especially helpful for people with gout, because 3nB appears to lower the production of the uric acid that causes gout by inhibiting the enzyme xanthine oxidase. [18]

How Much Celery Should I Use for Medicinal Purposes?

Celery is a food, so it is not necessary to worry about overeating it in its whole form. The herbal database from states that there is no recent clinical evidence to guide dosage of celery. They indicate that 1 gram to 4 gram doses of the seeds can be used to relieve excess gas. [19]

Research has shown that eating 8 ribs of raw celery per day will lower blood pressure. For pain management and other conditions, supplements containing an 85% concentration of 3nB and other celery phthalides can be taken daily. Daily use produces the best long-term effects. [20]

Organic celery seed oil in its complete form contains an entire range of ingredients, which work together to provide for treatment of the health conditions discussed in this article. The last section discusses various ways to introduce celery seed oil and whole celery into the body. Follow those suggestions and start with low doses. Increase as needed to provide the results you are seeking.

Celery is a natural alternative to pharmaceutical drugs. This means that the strong medicinal properties of celery can duplicate the effects of drugs. If you are taking pharmaceutical drugs, for example Coumadin (warfarin), which thins the blood, and you take celery seed oil, which can also thin the blood, then you might be over medicating yourself if you take them together.

How does Celery Provide All of These Different Benefits?

Dr. Michael T. Murray, ND, gives us insight to this question. Dr. Murry stated:

Based upon all of the existing research, it is clear that 3nB [one of the most significant components of celery] exerts a profound effect on many of the body’s control systems—chiefly the prostaglandin system. Prostaglandins are chemicals that control many important body processes, including regulating inflammation, pain and swelling; blood pressure; and heart, digestive and kidney function.

Some of the effects noted for 3nB on the prostaglandin system are quite unique. Rather than simply inhibiting the production of prostaglandins by blocking enzymes that produce them—which is what aspirin or the more expensive and selective Cox-2 inhibitors do—3nB appears to help restore balance in the prostaglandin system. Exactly how it accomplishes this is still a mystery. Drug companies are researching the unique effects of 3nB in order to develop drugs that can be patented and sold for a huge profit. It does not look like that line of research is necessary, however. [21]

Allergies to Celery

There are some people who have strong allergic reactions to celery in food. Celery allergy seems to be far more common in central Europe, mainly France, Switzerland and Germany, and less so in the UK and U.S., where peanut allergy is the most common. It is one of a small number of foods that can cause severe allergic reactions. These reactions are less common than peanut allergy. People with celery allergy can experience potentially fatal anaphylactic shock when exposed to celery.

Cooking celery does not destroy the proteins which cause the allergic reaction. Celery root, commonly eaten as celeriac, or put into drinks, is known to contain more allergen than the stalk, however the seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. Dried celery or spice is also highly allergenic and likely to cause a reaction if a person is sensitive to raw celery. [22] Some people who are allergic to birch pollen may also be allergic to celery seed. [23]

Thus, if you aren’t allergic to celery in its whole form, then you probably won’t be allergic to celery seed oil. However, it is always wise when trying an essential oil for the first time to proceed carefully just in case you might have a rare allergic reaction. Start by simply sniffing the oil while it is still in the bottle and watch for a reaction.

Look for tingling and itching sensations of the nose, mouth, and throat, which often appear in a few minutes. Raised bumps and itching can also appear on the face and eyelids. A skin rash and swelling may also occur. Extreme swelling of the throat may cause constriction of the airways, which can result in breathing difficulties. If this happens, seek medical attention. [24, 25, 26]

How to Increase Your Consumption of Celery?

Celery can be eaten cooked or raw. It can be juiced. It is an essential ingredient in Cajun recipes as well as in a wide variety of stews and soups. In my mind, chicken soup always requires celery in some form to wake up the wonderful flavor of organic chicken.

Celery leaves are a wonderful addition to a fall salad. They are a little bitter, but packed with flavor. I love to add fresh celery leaves, fresh parsley leaves, and fresh basil leaves to my lettuce mix. A little vinegar and olive oil brings out all the delightful flavors of the herbs. Of course, sliced crescents of the celery ribs add crunch and flavor to any salad. Celery ribs can be cut into sticks and used with dips of many varieties. Our favorite is cultured cream with chopped herbs added.

The aroma of celery seed oil has therapeutic value. Just place a couple drops in the palms of your hands, rub them together, place your nose between the palms of your hands, and gently inhale. Hold the palms together to trap the volatile oils before opening them again to take the next breath.

I have also taken the oil by placing a drop or two on the tongue and letting the oil be absorbed through the mucosal membranes of the mouth. I swallow the remaining oil after a minute or so. I do realize that some aromatherapists would disagree with this practice. However, based on the research cited above, consumption of celery seed oil has specific benefits when taken orally.

When I have trouble getting to sleep or wake unexpectedly in the middle of the night and have trouble falling asleep again, I place some celery seed oil in the palms of my hands, breathe the fragrance for a while, and then rub the residue of the oil on the back of my neck and forehead. It is amazing how quickly this brings sleep. Be careful when applying celery seed oil to the face during the day. Some people may find that areas of skin treated with celery seed oil will be sensitive to the UV rays in bright sunlight. I do not recommend using large amounts of celery seed oil during the day, because it can make you drowsy and interfere with productivity.

Daniele Ryman, an internationally known aromatherapist, fragrance consultant, and author, provides suggestions in her book, Aromatherapy Bible, which describe how celery can be used to address common health problems. She states:

Celery is a remarkable remedy for chilblains. Boil a large head of celery, root and leaves as well, in 2 litres … water for about 15 minutes. Then strain into a large receptacle. Place hands or feet into the hot water and leave for 15 minutes. Repeat three times a day, reheating the celery water each time. Celery water could also be drunk as a cure for a liver deficiency. Cook the celery in the same way. A head of celery can be juiced to make a liquid that is valuable for a number of complaints. Celery is a diuretic, so before and during a [woman’s] period if you retain fluid, or during menopause, the juice can help. For the same reason, it is also useful in a diet for weight loss. Drink several times a day, perhaps with a little lemon juice added. I have found this excellent, especially after heavy festivities such as Christmas and New Year. Sufferers from cystitis can also benefit from celery juice. The vegetable can be liquidized raw and eaten, or juiced and drunk: I think the latter is better. As a gargle for voice loss caused by nervousness or a chill, put 1 drop of the essential celery oil in a mug of boiled warm water, plus a little sea salt. Gargle for a few moments, and repeat three or four times per day. When suffering from nervous fatigue, take a warm bath with 8 drops of essential celery oil in it. Rest for 10 minutes afterwards. I always do this when I come back tired from the office, and feel very much better the next day. [27]

One of the simplest ways to consume celery is by making your own celery salt. It is made by grinding organic celery seeds in a small rotary coffee grinder. This is how you can do it. [28] (Recipes adapted from the Whole New Mom website.)

Option 1:

Take 2 tablespoons of organic celery seeds and grind them until fine. Add 2 tablespoons of finely ground salt, mix together, and store in an air-tight glass jar.

Option 2:

Add 2 tablespoons of organic celery seeds and 4 tablespoons of course salt together in a coffee grinder, grind the salt and seed mixture until it forms the desired fineness. Store in an air-tight glass jar.

Regardless of the option you use, it is important to store the salt in an air-tight glass jar to prevent the essential oils from dissipating into the air. It is best to make this in small amounts to retain the best freshness and flavor.

I do not recommend grocery store celery salt of the non-organic variety. It commonly contains partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, sodium silicoaluminate (aluminum), modified food starch, sugar, coloring, MSG (hidden under many ingredient names), and of course the catchall term “Natural Flavorings,” which could include almost anything. It doesn’t take long to make your own celery salt and avoid all these toxic ingredients. The best part is that you can use a homemade product to add great flavor to many recipes while benefitting the health of your family. As a quick reminder – don’t be afraid of salt! It is not the big bad high blood pressure bugaboo we have been led to believe. We need salt to sustain life and to provide us with adequate levels of stomach acid to digest our food.

Regardless of how you choose to use celery, it has many fine benefits that will help you live longer and with fewer complications. Celery is just one of the many natural alternatives that we can use to improve our health and avoid pharmaceutical drugs and their many complications.


[1] H. B. Sowbhagyaa, “Chemistry, Technology, and Nutraceutical Functions of Celery (Apium graveolens L.): An Overview,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Volume 54, Issue 3, 2014, pages 389-398, PMID: 24188309.

[2] “Shopper’s Guide to Pesticides,” Herbs Info,, Retrieved 10/31/2015.

[3] “Celery Uses, Benefits & Dosage,” Herbal Database, Retrieved 10/28/2015.

[4] H. B. Sowbhagyaa, “Chemistry, Technology, and Nutraceutical Functions of Celery (Apium graveolens L.): An Overview,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Volume 54, Issue 3, 2014, pages 389-398, PMID: 24188309.

[5] “Celery Uses, Benefits & Dosage,” Herbal Database, Retrieved 10/28/2015.

[6] Sheryl Water, “The Incredible Powers of Celery Juice,” Natural News. N.p., 24 Oct. 2008. Web. 22 July 2013.

[7] “Celery Uses, Benefits & Dosage,” Herbal Database, Retrieved 10/28/2015.

[8] “3nB & Celery Health Benefits – Lower Blood Pressure, Arthritis Relief,” Michael T. Murray, ND, Retrieved 10/30/2015.

[9] IBID.

[10] “Top 10 Foods That Fight Pain,” Herbs Info, Retrieved 10/27/2015.

[11] Kuo CH1, Weng BC2, Wu CC3, Yang SF4, Wu DC5, Wang YC6; “Apigenin has anti-atrophic gastritis and anti-gastric cancer progression effects in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils,” J Ethnopharmacol. 2/12/2014, PMID: 24374236.

[12] “Sperm count: Fertility in men on the decline due to everyday plastics say scientists,” Joe Millis, IBTimes UK, 6/18/2015.

[13] Helal MA1; “Celery oil modulates DEHP-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats,” Reprod Biol, 9/14/2014, PMID: 25152515.

[14] El-Shinnawy NA1.; “The therapeutic applications of celery oil seed extract on the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate toxicity,” Toxicol Ind Health. 4/31/2015, PMID: 23377116.

[15] Baananou S1, Bouftira I, Mahmoud A, Boukef K, Marongiu B, Boughattas NA.; “Antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens essential oil and extract,” Nat Prod Res, 12/27/2013, PMID: 22934666.

[16] H. B. Sowbhagyaa, “Chemistry, Technology, and Nutraceutical Functions of Celery (Apium graveolens L.): An Overview,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Volume 54, Issue 3, 2014, pages 389-398, PMID: 24188309.

[17] “Top 10 Home Remedies For Arthritis,” Herbs Info.

[18] “3nB & Celery Health Benefits – Lower Blood Pressure, Arthritis Relief,” Michael T. Murray, ND, Retrieved 10/30/2015.

[19] “Celery Uses, Benefits & Dosage,”, Herbal Database.

[20] “3nB & Celery Health Benefits – Lower Blood Pressure, Arthritis Relief,” Michael T. Murray, ND, Retrieved 10/30/2015.

[21] IBID.

[22] “What is celery allergy?” (from) What Allergy? 4/15/2015.

[23] “Celery seed,” University of Maryland Medical Center, Retrieved 10/31/2015.

[24] “What is celery allergy?” (from) What Allergy? 4/15/2015.

[25] “Celery Allergy Symptoms,” Nancy Clark, LIVESTRONG.COM, 9/4/2015.

[26] “Celery Allergy – the facts,” | Anaphylaxis campaign, Retrieved 10/31/2015.–the-facts?page=3

[27] “Aromatherapy Bible,” Daniele Ryman,, celery entry.

[28] “Homemade Celery Salt – and How to Use It,” Recipe adapted from Adrienne – the voice behind the Whole New Mom website, Retrieved 10/31/2015.