bottle of cinnamon aromatherapy oil - beauty treatment

By John P. Thomas
Health Impact News

Introduction – Overview

I haven’t yet met a person who doesn’t like the aroma or flavor of cinnamon, though there may be a few who don’t. From cinnamon rolls to red hot candy balls, to chewing gum and apple pie, cinnamon is well loved. Beyond these common uses, cinnamon (without the sugar and white flour) is a powerful medicine that can assist with the treatment of various health conditions. Research has shown that cinnamon can lower blood sugar, lower blood pressure, assist in weight loss, and destroy bacteria and viruses. These properties are found in the essential oil of cinnamon as well as in whole cinnamon sticks and ground cinnamon.

According to Malaysian researchers and researchers from the US Department of Agriculture, cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamate, and numerous other components such as polyphenols. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported as useful for metabolic syndrome, insulin sensitivity, polycystic ovary syndrome, increasing lean body mass, and gastric emptying. It is useful against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. [1, 2]

Historically, cinnamon aids in circulation and digestion. It is a common ingredient used in tea for nausea during pregnancy. It is also used following delivery to decrease hemorrhage. The health benefits of cinnamon can be attributed to its antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, astringent and anti-clotting properties. [3]

Researchers in Europe, the Middle East, India, China, and the United States are not necessarily using the same type of cinnamon when they do their research. This sometimes leads to confusion and to contradictory research findings. There is overwhelming evidence that cinnamon has numerous therapeutic benefits, however, these benefits are not universally reported by researchers in all countries. Not all cinnamon is the same. Also, cinnamon powder rapidly loses its freshness, which means that its active components may volatilize into the air. Thus, research that was done with different types of cinnamon, with an old inventory of cinnamon, with irradiated cinnamon, or cinnamon that was given with certain pharmaceutical drugs may not produce the same results when compared to other cinnamon studies. [4]

This article will conclude with information about how to use ground cinnamon and the essential oil of cinnamon. Doses, precautions, and recipe suggestions will be provided.

Differences between Types of Cinnamon

In the United States, the word cinnamon can refer to spices that come from various parts of the world and from quite different varieties of plants. Thus, not all cinnamon or all cinnamon essential oil is the same.

This is important, because the different plant varieties do not have the same composition of active components. Ground cinnamon and cinnamon sticks are made from the bark of several related tropical evergreen trees in the Lauraceae (laurel) family. Cinnamon essential oil is distilled from the bark, stems and leaves of these trees.

Most cinnamon spice sold in the United States is actually not true cinnamon. It is a closely related spice called cassia. Cassia (Cinnamomum cassia): also known as “Chinese Cinnamon”, is what is usually sold as cinnamon in US stores. The US Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 permits spice traders to label cassia as cinnamon. [5]

True cinnamon is Ceylon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or sometimes Cinnamomum verum). This “true cinnamon” is the preferred variety in Europe and Mexico. It is milder than cassia, but has a more subtle and complex flavor than cassia. [6]

Most of the scientific studies that I will review in this article use ground cinnamon or specific components of cinnamon that have been derived from cinnamon by use of a water process. Some studies use essential oil of cinnamon, which is produced from distillation.

The essential oil of cinnamon is highly concentrated and very strong. With some herbs and spices, we don’t see a strong effect from the natural plant material, which means that essential oils are preferred for medicinal use. With cinnamon, the use of freshly ground cinnamon can have therapeutic effects. This is also the case for extracts made from cinnamon.

I will not report on studies which show that cinnamon is ineffective. The overwhelming evidence from several decades of studies is that cinnamon has therapeutic effects. The studies that contradict this large body of positive research may be related to various methodological factors such as the use of different varieties of cinnamon, to the use of an old stock of ground cinnamon, to using an inappropriately high or low dose of cinnamon, to using irradiated cinnamon, to the simultaneous use of pharmaceutical medications, or to other problems in research methodology. In some cases I must wonder whether the negative studies on cinnamon were influenced by the USFDA and pharmaceutical industry, which are working hard to discourage the use of natural remedies and to promote the use of pharmaceutical drugs.

Cinnamon Used to Reduce Blood Sugar in Diabetics

The vast majority of recent research on cinnamon has to do with controlling diabetes and various related conditions. So, let’s start with one of the central concerns involving blood sugar.

Cinnamomum zeylanicum [true cinnamon] is a popular kitchen spice widely investigated for insulin potentiating effects. Researchers in India investigated water soluble polyphenols (oligomeric procyanidins) to evaluate their effect on insulin and blood sugar. The polyphenol enhanced extracts were shown to be safe, while offering good antioxidant potential. The diabetic rats that were treated with the polyphenol enhanced extracts experienced reduced blood sugar during the 30 day experiment. The same benefit was obtained by a group of 15 human volunteers with chronically elevated fasting blood sugar levels who were not using medication to control blood sugar. [7]

A review of studies conducted by California researchers examined cinnamon’s effect on blood sugar and lipid (blood fat) levels in diabetic patients. Ten random control trials with a total of 543 patients were examined. Cinnamon doses of 120 mg per day to 6 g per day were given for a period of 4 to 18 weeks. (6 g is slightly more than 2 teaspoons.) Among the findings was an average reduction in fasting blood sugar levels of 24.59 mg/dL. The reductions ranged from 40.52 to 8.67 mg/dL depending on the study. The studies did not affect hemoglobin A1c levels. The researchers did not make specific recommendations for cinnamon doses per day, because the doses varied quite a bit among the studies. [8]

In England, researchers investigated the blood glucose lowering effect of cinnamon on HbA1c, blood pressure, and lipid profiles in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients. 58 type 2 diabetic patients aged 45 to 65 years of age, who were being treated only with hypoglycemic agents and who had HbA1c test results of more than 7% were randomly assigned to receive either 2 grams of cinnamon or placebo per day for 12 weeks. At the end of the study, the cinnamon group had an 8.22% average reduction in HbA1c. Average blood pressures were also significantly reduced. Systolic blood pressure fell from 132.6 to 129.2 mmHg and the diastolic pressure fell from 85.2 to 80.2 mmHg.

A significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, and body mass index was observed at week 12 compared to the values at the beginning of the study for the cinnamon group. However, these changes were not significant when compared to the placebo group. The researchers concluded that intake of 2 grams (slightly less than a teaspoon) of cinnamon for 12 weeks significantly reduces the HbA1c and blood pressure for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes patients. Cinnamon supplementation could be considered as an additional dietary supplement option to regulate blood glucose and blood pressure levels along with conventional medications to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. [9]

Cinnamon Polyphenols used to Manage Type 2 Diabetes

In a study conducted by Chinese researchers, the effects of giving cinnamon polyphenols to diabetic mice were investigated. The mice were fed a high-sugar, high-fat diet. The results matched other studies, which produced reductions in blood sugar, blood insulin levels, and markers of oxidative stress. What was even more interesting was that damage to the pancreatic beta cells in the islets of the pancreas was ameliorated. These benefits may have actually resulted from the repair of pancreatic beta cells and from improvements in their anti-oxidative capacity, which came from the use of cinnamon polyphenols. [10]

Scientists from Spain also conducted research on polyphenols. They noted that polyphenols have been reported to prevent chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. The objective of the study was to identify anti-obesity polyphenolic plant extracts using diabetic rats. Rats were fed a high fat and high sugar diet, and were given various polyphenolic plant extracts. They tested extracts from almond, apple, cinnamon, orange blossom, hamamelis, lime blossom, grape vine, and birch. Rats were treated for 56 to 64 days. Their results showed that only apple and cinnamon extracts were finally considered as potentially important anti-obesity extracts due to their ability to reduce body fat. They also noted that apple polyphenols reduced metabolic complications associated with obesity. [11]

Cinnamon used for Weight Loss

Researchers from Pakistan report that obesity is a risk factor leading to a number of chronic and metabolic disorders. Obesity is the fifth leading cause of death globally. At least 2.8 million adults are dying each year being overweight or obese. Cassia (Cinnamomi cassiae) is used in Pakistan as a traditional medicinal plant to decrease glucose.

Researchers prepared a water based extract from cinnamon bark and gave it to obese rats for 5 weeks. They observed two important changes. First, the rats voluntarily reduced their intake of food, and there was an increase in a neurotransmitter called 5-HT Serotonin (5-Hydroxy tryptamine). Elevated levels of this neurotransmitter are seen in persons with anorexia. Thus, cinnamon seems to increase this level in overweight rats, which reduces their desire to overeat. [12]

Cinnamon and Prevention of Diabetic Kidney Disease

Chinese researchers were interested in studying the ability of Chinese cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) to prevent diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease). This disease is very difficult to treat and prevention is a much better option.

Chinese cassia is one of the most popular natural spices and flavoring agents in many parts of the world. Since previous reports indicated that Chinese cinnamon extract could be used for the treatment of diabetes, the researchers studied its ability to prevent diabetic kidney disease. They isolated several compounds from cinnamon extract.

Their results showed that some of the isolates did prevent certain actions which would lead to kidney disease. Thus, they suggested that Chinese cinnamon could be used as a functional food against diabetic nephropathy. [14]

Cinnamon used for High Blood Pressure in Prediabetes/Diabetes

Canadian researchers reviewed and evaluated the effects of short-term administration of cinnamon on blood pressure regulation in patients with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes by looking at randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. They found that cinnamon significantly decreased systolic blood pressure by an average of 5.39 mm Hg (reductions ranged from 6.89 to 3.89). Diastolic blood pressure was reduced by an average of 2.6 mm Hg (ranging from 4.53 to 0.66). [15]

Cinnamon used to Protect the Pancreas

The antidiabetic effect of cinnamon has generated broad interest during the past decade. Researchers from Taiwan investigated the ability of essential oil of cinnamon to reduce blood sugar and to protect the pancreas from damage. The essential oil was made from indigenous cinnamon leaves. Several groups of diabetic rats were tested with different doses of cinnamon oil.

All the doses of cinnamon oil significantly lowered fasting blood sugar and fructosamine. A very interesting finding involved the levels of insulin levels in the blood. They found that the lowest dose of cinnamon oil reduced plasma insulin levels better than higher doses. The low dose was 12.5 mg per kg of body weight for the rats. 25 and 50 mg per kg of body weight was not as effective for ameliorating the accumulation of insulin.

In addition, the low dose of cinnamon oil significantly reduced pancreatic values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase in diabetics to an extent greater than that of higher cinnamon doses. In conclusion, appropriate doses of cinnamon of the linalool chemotype exhibited therapeutic potential in blood sugar control that partially resulted from improved insulin secretion. The reduction in oxidative stress and inflammation in the pancreas by cinnamon oil may provide a protective effect on pancreatic cells. [16]

Cinnamon for Arthritis and Pain Relief

Cinnamon bark from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (verum) is one of the oldest traditional medicines used in India for inflammatory and pain related disorders. Researchers in India evaluated the efficacy of the polyphenol fraction from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark in animal models of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

They worked with several groups of rats that were induced with various health conditions. These included rat paw inflammation, localized immune system distress (granuloma), or adjuvant-induced polyarthritis.

Researchers observed dose dependent decreases in inflammation, edema, pain reactions, and cytokine activity. In conclusion, they determined that cinnamon polyphenols have prominent action in animal inflammation and arthritis and therefore can be considered a potential anti-rheumatic agent, which can be used to treat these diseases. [17]

Cinnamon and Alzheimer’s disease

Researchers from California found that cinnamon contains cinnamaldehyde and epicatechin, which inhibit the aggregation of a particular protein called tau. Tau is needed for the normal structure and function of neurons in the brain. However, if this protein begins to accumulate, it can form neurofibrillary tangles, which are a characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease. Cinnamaldehyde and epicatechin were found to protect tau from oxidative damage that can lead to dysfunction. [18]

It’s interesting to note that there’s a high correlation between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. Some even believe Alzheimer’s may be a form of brain diabetes. Insulin and the receptors for insulin in your brain are crucial for learning and memory, and it’s known that these components are lower in people with Alzheimer’s disease. [19]

Cinnamon boosts the activity of the brain and hence acts as a good brain tonic. It helps in removing nervous tension and memory loss. Cognitive tests revealed that subjects who used cinnamon had better memory functions and could process information more quickly. [20, 21]

Cinnamon Oil Destroys Viruses, Fungi, and Bacteria

Cinnamon oil is a very strong antiseptic. This oil can contain a high proportion of phenols (5 – 10 per cent eugenol). It has been classified as one of the strongest antiseptics and antivirals in nature. One source states that the essential oil destroyed a culture of the typhoid bacillus in less than half an hour. [22]

I did not find any research studies to confirm that cinnamon oil can kill Ebola Virus, but based on the powerful anti-viral properties of cinnamon oil, I suspect that it could be effective for people who had direct physical contact with a person who has been sickened by the Ebola virus.

What are the Precautions for Using Cinnamon and Cinnamon Oil?

The answer to this question varies considerably depending upon the resources being asked. Thus, the suggestions I will make will call upon you to use your own judgment and your common sense.

Some sources are very precautionary. These sources include allopathic medical sources and aromatherapy sources that represent the English school of aromatherapy. At a minimum, conventional medical sources suggest that a person not consume more cinnamon than would be consumed with normal cooking recipes. So, if you use a teaspoon of cinnamon in an apple pie, then you shouldn’t consume more than 1/8 of a teaspoon of ground cinnamon (equal to the cinnamon in 1 slice of pie). These sources suggest that the essential oil of cinnamon is very strong and should never be applied to the skin without dilution in a carrier oil, and that it should not be swallowed. They suggest that it be diluted with a carrier oil such as coconut oil or olive oil at a rate of 20 drops of carrier for 1 drop of cinnamon essential oil when applying it to the skin.

Other sources are not so cautious. Some people believe that even though cinnamon oil is very strong, pure 100% organic cinnamon oil can be used directly on skin and taken orally. Even though this might be done, I recommend proceeding carefully.

One well known aromatherapist indicates that the high eugenol content of cinnamon oil has the potential to corrode metal, so it is strong! [23] This means that cinnamon oil has a burning quality, which depending on where it is applied on the body, can be very uncomfortable. If you experience discomfort, then use a bland oil such as coconut oil or olive oil to dilute the cinnamon oil that is on the skin and wipe off the excess. If you get cinnamon oil on your fingers, then it is wise to remove the excess oil, before you accidentally rub it into your eyes. If you do get it into your eyes, then use a carrier oil to carefully dilute and remove the oil.

Additional information about using essential oils can be found in this Health Impact News article: Using Essential Oils to Cure Disease

How Much Cinnamon can be Consumed per Day

Research on this question varies widely. I cannot give an exact recommended daily dose. The amount of cinnamon that is needed depends on a person’s health and ailments, and on the quality and type of cinnamon being used. As mentioned earlier, different types of cinnamon have somewhat different properties. Also, old jars of ground cinnamon or irradiated cinnamon will be less effective than fresh cinnamon. Organic cinnamon will be your best option. Store your cinnamon in a cool dark location to preserve it.

If you have not previously used ground cinnamon medicinally, then start out with a small amount. Consider beginning with 1/8 of a teaspoon of ground cinnamon as a starting point and monitor your reaction. Researchers have used doses of ground cinnamon ranging from ¼ teaspoon per day up to 2 teaspoons per day. One level baking teaspoon (measuring spoon) equals 2.6 grams. Recommended ranges include 1 to 4 grams per day or 1 to 6 grams per day. [24, 25, 26]

Some people may not notice any reaction when they take ground cinnamon while others may experience a warming sensation in the stomach. Some who have stomach ulcers might have unpleasant reactions to taking cinnamon even though it might be helpful for that condition. People with irritable bowel disease might experience diarrhea. Some people might experience over-all warming and even sweating. Taking too much cinnamon can cause nausea and vomiting. In small amounts, cinnamon can calm a queasy stomach.

If you are a diabetic, then it will be important to monitor your blood sugar. Cinnamon could bring your blood sugar down lower than you might wish especially if you are taking pharmaceutical drugs for the same purpose.

Some people will have better results from using Ceylon cinnamon, (“true cinnamon,” or Cinnamomum zeylanicum) while others may benefit more from cassia cinnamon. These two types of cinnamon are similar, but do not contain the exact same components. Cassia cinnamon has much higher levels of coumarin, which humans metabolize to 7-hydroxycoumarin. This is a toxin that can be moderately damaging to the liver and kidneys. According to the European Food Safety Authority, a teaspoon of Cassia cinnamon powder contains 5.8 to 12.1 mg of coumarin. The tolerable daily intake for humans is 0.1 mg/kg body weight, meaning a daily teaspoon might exceed the limit for smaller individuals. [27]

Recommendations for consuming the essential oil of cinnamon also vary quite a bit. Doses of cinnamon oil are measured in drops. The NYU Langone Medical Center indicates that cinnamon oil is generally used at a dose of 0.05 to 0.2 grams. [28]

One drop is approximately equal to 0.05 g. The size of a drop depends on the orifice of the essential oil bottle and the viscosity of the oil. A 5 ML bottle of essential oil will contain 85 to 100 drops or more. With cinnamon oil, a few drops go a long way. Some people mix cinnamon oil with coconut oil or with honey when taking it orally. Some put the oil into gelatin capsules.


There is ample scientific evidence to show that ground cinnamon and the essential oil of cinnamon have numerous health benefits. As was discussed, there is still some confusion about which type of cinnamon is best, and how much ground cinnamon or cinnamon essential oil is needed for a certain condition. Those who wish to use cinnamon will need to start slowly and evaluate how the treatment is helping their ailments. As an alternative to taking cinnamon as a supplement, you can simply add it to the meals that you prepare.

Mark’s Daily Apple makes this no stress recommendation for taking cinnamon:

Ah, what to use, how to extract it, and how much to consume? – The eternal question facing us students of health and optimal nutrition. Just eat, steep, grind, or cook with it, and you’ll be fine. [29]

The Epicurean Digest offers some great sounding ideas for adding cinnamon to your diet:

A type of curry that calls for a serious amount of cinnamon is perhaps the best food method. However, I have added cinnamon throughout the day in my yoghurt, muesli, Moroccan dishes, smoothies and desserts. It has a great affinity for hot cocoa or hot milk at night. Italians sprinkle cinnamon over slices of orange as a dessert – wonderful. Goes well with cherries and other berries. Cinnamon and mango is heaven!

My favourite way is simply stirring my cinnamon into a little coconut oil and taking it straight as a serious dose. Coconut oil, cinnamon and honey and allowed to chill slightly makes a wonderful spread on a piece of rye bread! [30]


[1] Rao PV1, Gan SH2.; “Cinnamon: a multifaceted medicinal plant,” Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014 April, PMID: 24817901.

[2] Qin B1, Panickar KS, Anderson RA.; “Cinnamon: potential role in the prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes,” J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010 May 1, PMID: 20513336.

[3] “Healing Powers of Cinnamon,” Truth is Treason, Retreived 10/7/14.

[4] Qin B1, Panickar KS, Anderson RA.; “Cinnamon: potential role in the prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes,” J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010 May 1, PMID: 20513336.

[5] “Cinnamon,” Medieval Cookery, Retreived 10/3/14.

[6] IBID.

[7] Im K1, Issac A, Nm J, Ninan E, Maliakel B, Kuttan R.; “Effects of the polyphenol content on the anti-diabetic activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts,” Food Funct. 2014 Aug 20, PMID: 25051315.

[8] Allen RW1, Schwartzman E, Baker WL, Coleman CI, Phung OJ.; “Cinnamon use in type 2 diabetes: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ann Fam Med. 2013 Sep-October, PMID: 24019277.

[9] Akilen R1, Tsiami A, Devendra D, Robinson N.; “Glycated haemoglobin and blood pressure-lowering effect of cinnamon in multi-ethnic Type 2 diabetic patients in the UK: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial,” Diabet Med. 2010 October, PMID: 20854384.

[10] Li R1, Liang T, Xu L, Li Y, Zhang S, Duan X.;  “Protective effect of cinnamon polyphenols against STZ-diabetic mice fed high-sugar, high-fat diet and its underlying mechanism,” Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 January, PMID: 23127600.

[11] Boqué N1, Campión J, de la Iglesia R, de la Garza AL, Milagro FI, San Román B, Bañuelos Ó, Martínez JA.; “Screening of polyphenolic plant extracts for anti-obesity properties in Wistar rats,” J Sci Food Agric. 2013 March 30, PMID: 23080265

[12] Bano F1, Ikram H2, Akhtar N3.; “Neurochemical and behavioral effects of Cinnamomi cassiae (Lauraceae) bark aqueous extract in obese rats,” Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014 May, PMID: 24811817.

[13] Sartorius T1, Peter A2, Schulz N3, Drescher A2, Bergheim I4, Machann J5, Schick F6, Siegel-Axel D2, Schürmann A3, Weigert C1, Häring HU1, Hennige AM7.; “Cinnamon extract improves insulin sensitivity in the brain and lowers liver fat in mouse models of obesity,” PLoS One. 2014 March 18, PMID: 24643026.

[14] Luo Q1, Wang SM, Lu Q, Luo J, Cheng YX.; “Identification of Compounds from the Water Soluble Extract of Cinnamomum Cassia Barks and their Inhibitory Effects Against High-Glucose-Induced Mesangial Cells.” Molecules. 2013 September 5, PMID: 24013407.

[15] Akilen R1, Pimlott Z, Tsiami A, Robinson N.; “Effect of short-term administration of cinnamon on blood pressure in patients with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes,” Nutrition. 2013 October, PMID: 23867208.

[16] Lee SC1, Xu WX, Lin LY, Yang JJ, Liu CT.; “Chemical composition and hypoglycemic and pancreas-protective effect of leaf essential oil from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira),” J Agric Food Chem. 2013 May 22, PMID: 23627599.

[17] Rathi B1, Bodhankar S, Mohan V, Thakurdesai P.; “Ameliorative Effects of a Polyphenolic Fraction of Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. Bark in Animal Models of Inflammation and Arthritis,” Sci Pharm. 2013 June, PMID: 23833722.

[18] George RC1, Lew J, Graves DJ.; “Interaction of cinnamaldehyde and epicatechin with tau: implications of beneficial effects in modulating Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis,” J Alzheimers Dis. 2013, PMID: 23531502.

[19] “The Link Between Alzheimer’s, Cinnamon, and Vitamins,” Mercola,com, 6/13/2013, Retreived 10/6/14.

[20] “Healing Powers of Cinnamon,” Truth is Treason, Retreived 10/7/14.

[21] “Essential Oils Support Physical and Emotional Well-Being,”, September 4, 2014, Retreived 10/2/14.

[22] “Cinnamon Cassia essential oil,” Aromatherapy Bible, Danièle Ryman, Retreived 10/2/14.

[23] IBID.

[24] “Health Benefits of Cinnamon,” Mark’s Daily Apple, Retreived 10/7/14.

[25] “Dosage and Method: Cinnamon,” The Epicurean Digest, Retreived 10/7/14.

[26] “Cinnamon,” NYU Langone Medical Center, Retreived 10/7/14.

[27] “Health Benefits of Cinnamon,” Mark’s Daily Apple, Retreived 10/7/14.

[28] “Cinnamon,” NYU Langone Medical Center, Retreived 10/7/14.

[29] “Health Benefits of Cinnamon,” Mark’s Daily Apple, Retreived 10/7/14.

[30] “Dosage and Method: Cinnamon,” The Epicurean Digest, Retreived 10/7/14.


The Chemistry of Essential Oils Made Simple: God’s Love Manifest in Molecules,
David Stewart, Ph.D., D.N.M. Integrated Aromatic Science Practitioner, Care Publications, Fourth Printing 2013.


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